Skip to main content

Full text of "Ancient Karnataka Vol. I. History Of Tuluva"

See other formats

Pcom Onertlfl/ Series \ o. 5 J 




vCh.. i 




\i . .1 . , 1‘h.iiL, (umct. ci ciesaen) 

H^rnfi-iidr of H iitary 

Sii l' ir»ililir:i-n'Lliliai.l 1'n‘ik <r, I’oOftA 





^r; ■{ i : i 1 o o : 





la Mi lei 

BiloSyafi Poinfl-S, 

Patina Oriental Series .\ r d. 5i 







MX, ph.if., |LfrfnJ, L’ r cjffiftMl) 

I'YnfciSfir of HLiiori 
S it T':lT. bl.:l r:HnVUi:i'J ColkSr, I'w.a 




Ollllr ivarka bjr Iktr mnc Author 

1. Dtr Wen dir Ligt&cheit Lehten Ftir die Lckuhr cicr 
indi&eJien Frige. (I.eiplcig, I9fl3). Price Ra. 9, 

2 , SL>cii] ii chJ Political Life in ulie Vijay^napira 
Eimptre. 2 Volumes. (Mjdras, 19.54) . fts, 12. 

3 J he Wild 'i'ribcH :n Endiari I Tisiory ll.aliore* 1935}. 
tts. 5. 

4. ITm M^irltha Dominion in the Karnataka- ( In the 

Other work an Ancient KarnSta-ki 

1. 3'he Rustrakutaa and Thtif Time!;. 

By Ur. A. S. Altekar^ ji.v.. ll b,, p. tin. 

PnWiifitr-3 Oriental Ikn4; Agency, PoOna. 

Price Rs, 7-fi-0 

,-| Jj 1 rig#! rr.rfrtiefl 1 l>fi the Publisher 

rnirtii h — & H HohVl-msI, b.a., JJ.Ji.i ^ th<r Simirtli VUvili/i'# 
1 Hiiraiirili I [Ha jit ’ Itet-*, ^*7. Sidn^hiv ?clh„ P^rmi 2. 
PuU£iW N C. Sied^wa I, l.*-- ftwiiil If^k 

AficnE/, tfi Shdkr»w«t I’rthj Pfrwa I. 

The he love J memory of my elder Hr other 
Ufeopani ^hnnfcpr 
who inspired and guided me 
an Lhui work, but was 
snatched away before 
its completion. 

P R [i F A C E 

lit ilit follnwirtg f ages i>ip hiBtujry -i>f x precinct nhich 
till ih>w ha* remained pTiLtitRlty unknown, hx& lieen brought 
10 light fnr Sh-v first Li rise with till" help of all ;l sr;i IJ ub>l ^ IliUd- 
ricAl ra a tetris I ?. "!"l i i* province of TuLuva N il-sv ri pt-lmii* Led 

by tfi-e Sun l h K*n*r? distri-ri-oF (lie Mudruf- Treside ncy and 
lh* greater pit Ft *A tli* Morth K-imara district of the Ihilnbiiy 
PieeiJency, hai ever F'onaiiied ah in^e^ral part nt' the ksr. 
hi^nfta , with pnLuieal relation* with attiron all ilie myal 
HiAtlica shat Tulpd over the apuLth^rn and western pnrtfi of 
tin; Peninsula- 

The iljuafliy that ruled ever 1 u juvuni d u was rifvr t an, 
imperial laiufc; Ijji imperial families al'iiLi ritvf not alw nys 
contrihuteJ eLtJher nnh* pnlitjcid nr cultural ^rtsin^B uS" 
the twntry Moya] families if minor states Inn in a jural 
mewnre, espe-dally in the JCarni^ultHi helped tu p If cm Etc "ur 
p r> 0 i v rLL heritage and history. This i R the KR&ij-n w hv. i nta-ia i.l 
■::f j>f£in:;in£ llse ancient hntory -t till' l-‘ m rn ..c jl. s WiTri the 
Sntnvihnrras ami the M mi rims I have preftevd El with thr 
xr. nala nf the Alupafl- vrhi>F« imeTtf.ti'in listoiY dates hack tu 
iht second century A, D-i and whose district preacived ip 
taot tiro liorruage and culture of the Kitn&t alin when they 
were threatened with admixture in the mlier parts nf tEn.- One of the mis ms why this ancient dymatt ',ias 
ahl? to hand, down to pniurEty the crul 1 1 re nf the Tutu anti 
the Kirni^alta peuple, ss hpcauju: nf the iici tlhat its province 
neyer buffered iriiL i III invjwiina cy{ the Muhammadans, 
■wlimic iicirliuh piswrd an d.jj;i5trous t-u the j-tahilil v if riuiiLLr- 
Out- htarea in tile Vfv&Lerr. and scuitSiern pans it the Country. 

1/JlC history nl nir district Eias Keen studic-il froO'i Five 
IKJintt of view. In the first chapter, dealing with e lit.- Legen- 
dary BcgiLiiiLitps, I have attempted to place Tu'uva ski the 
backfCK.'und *F Lite Ir^endx ef liie whide .if tha we£teri: 1 -nrt 
of India. The second -aad the tltitJ clupteTs deal only wirh 
tilt domeitii: a -id foreign relatiuna of the A In pa TiiL<ra, based 
entirely on thtir own Et-une and cfrppi t-.plati; insitipiinnE ns 



iv e 11 an on [hcitfe j| (.heir ■icigh'bn.iirx.ihE Karn^nfc? and Tamil 
mnnarstiE- ~l uluva IradiHem ax embodied in □ wn-r V rfillrd 
GrumnpndrfliQti , which ■£ in traduced To nC-ho-larF far the first 
time,, ft incorporated in e|ie fourth chaptEr ntytrd Village 
QrpaJlLxjtinn Religion futtrts line rsfiit topic of m"V study. 
b*B«l again cm epigraphs, litetature, and Tuluvi and aim 
Tu-iuvi irndithu- And, finally, the life oi the T u In people 
glcaofid cuL-lusiv^ty from thdr admirable folk-tunja >: a L I l- ; 1 
Lni rid j L Laii 4 !j, brings, c work r." a elate, In the tint 
appendix I hove p.veii fl tentative rfndctiug inlo Kannada u( 
the psHiiigrE found in ilif Creek FlitejiapmeBd and verified 
sjurr my catl Eft ten lie r;n if -nf the fi-aine in ifllft ■udie-n 1 had, 
at hja uwn T?t|acBt, sent MaltjnsahnpLLdlvyaya |Jr, H. bhama 
Sairrv, th«n Director cl Arabadojietl Ftescnrcbts in 
Myturc, ihfiflfi pajdaRe* put into Kannada. A comparative list 
af the rainy ]wi*sthcild* nf Tuluvfl, as In nnd in the diiforcnt 
v^reinn* the G&m\ipaAtlh«U . lb the second append!* ; and 
the itiird contuLna a Ecnfialugita] account of all the Alupi 
}j II jja lILeikhvc red. (ill now. 

Notwithstanding: my conlinual and pfiTunnal ipvEstinsi- 
tions in the vaticum part* uf the district, 1 find that I have 
rna-de hut a bcSinuing in rhe direction oi writing a complete 
hlaiMjf d the TuLiwa people, Theae pages, the rc ? wc , fojjn 
only * preliminary suidy uf tl>i f ancient and Jtjtlicrtn un- 
explored ptirvintfi. Since sending [lie Ala. lu the press, 
I have HWurcd through the ki i>rl eiertioa uf weUwLsficr* hulJ 
£ riefida V*t kiu* Mss . which, should there be in occasinn ill 
I hr near future, I all all Imply utjljsie in the next edition of 
the wnrk I have defilseratety nmitled some phases nf the 
biitnry oF I'ulnva, which will he dealt with in a later 
diuMtntlen. This wnrlf Farm* the fi ret of a series of five 
volumes -which ptopofie in deal with the history of Ancient 
Jtarnajafc* from earliest lime* tilt the dawnhll <if the 
Western CSIutyu. 



1 abstained fj.irn G= v ii>(? a UNiuitlTaplhy j is l hire 

cited a Into Ft alt BUthoriiicF -with the necesajry details hi the- 
f lkiC notCF , All lEl-C Works u.L i Lizod in my work a nr n vallahEi- 
At the Oriental ISook Agtnty, Putin il, 

My ohlipar runs. ami E-nutfulnESF air dur id quite a 
number uf pentJUF; Mr- K- N DiksJiit. m.a,. Deputy Direc- 
tci-^jtntral of Archaeology., Simla, ivhu was mind enmisli 
t« a*k the Superintendent of A nchaeolo&y, Southern rin-Je, 
to send me e tmii scripts uf 'lit folluwmp unpublished 
stone inscription* found La Tu, juvi-Soa . Jt2 and- 41V of 
1 *27-2 K, , 4JUt h A W, 4 £ J 1 , m ind 52Hi uf H2tl -2V ; Fan^ir 
V emit it ad La a Aelfy.i #rld Pimdi L Kaxgar akiuluru Btia^ja 
iiama.'kTsriSyys. hnrjh of Ddip i, wln» EfiiT-rd no pains: either tL. 
nccrimp^ny mo til my tours eh the Hixtirict, or to jjuiist mD 
in pHictiriEig Mas., or In supply me iyith all the data \ 
wanted \. Mr. S. I_ Kayudi. Librarian nf the JHcmhas |l lati^h 
of the Royil \m.iLio S^iety w ho_ W 1 t ll flip 0VerH>l&] dpny; 
Assistants, Htide it possible for me to recast onmpl ctdy an 
easier vc Fuiti n rdf this work. Juiini; tho aprind gf T934 . Air. 
V- (Jancsh Sunder Kjwf of Udijg and Mr M. Sunder Ftnn, h bn,. 

L. T-., of MafiJJ-fllOri: . h hit- have Itnt me SHHr.r of I lit- j t pho- 
tographs ‘ r it. ■. |jr(st1ier Mr- G- Saleinre. h- a., irflC' copied 
for me j, line totiIoh of [lit f ini r.-ii jpji/ciftrj fi iiidmy; I r> ■■ 1 1 
Udipi . M(. K. tt. S’leity of LTJipL, who ku drawn in eyye-l- 
lent map iif Ty-luva for me ; my wife wlv» lias prepared ilic 
index , VirLi Ji and hik a to Ur Mar llutt Sh:i run who has urn nr 

throiiuh flome rtf the pr-vcf* and offered mu V* learned 
advioo ; Mr. S, R. SatJeui whast earduL eserulion of the 
work merit* all praise ; and Dr. N. C, Sard-wai wli»t kind- 
ness and i^ktu' rgsity mike it pitsaible for tills work to appear 
in print, 

Vijayadn Ninst, j 

193/11, Tibk Head, ; 

'fotitu, 2, ‘ 



Chapter Tape 

1 LrjfeBdary Bcgi-rtnpiiga ... . .. 1 

IE The Alupa Dyn Liitj lL . ... ... 57 

[II 3’^reicn Rula'ianH .... ... ... I !?& 

IV Village Onjaniaminfi ... ... .., 296 

V RHis™ ... ... — ■ ■■ 36 # 

VI Lift? m Early Tulu^*,., ... ... +59 

Appendix A... 

Tht fUfeek Facie with. Old [\ ;’m n j i.I j P-inSajC'S F-H+ 

Appendix B ... ,,- ... ... 

I 3',-nf l'3loIJ r in t:u - 1 i lt ! v [wu {jiiinkt of... 

Tu Ink'Ll ... ... ... ... 7 ‘r’t’i 

Appendii C ,., 

GesiejIo^iL'iil Table ... ... CIS 

I nd c?l ... -■* til] 

Map FfOrtiiapLect 

TLluftCf iciurm 

E R P A T A 






dhara^i -bbOvat 







■or Tu]4Ta 

of Tu )uti 




aaoiambbfty H!im 



uf J3iijt ijjk\Ll:i 

■^■4 tho UtiHfUfikulp 

, , 



AEuta and 



in village 

tile village 







CWdamatl pva 




Sfyi d=va Alupen 

SoyEdeva Alup- 

dradeva I 




Mai yalaiiefia 

Malay Slidrfjj 











UlLnialta 1 

Rairni al Lp 11 



be an [ilk 

53 rn nc h 



Sakii 74 

Ajkfl 742 







Kituti»k* Devi 

KutifUki Devi 



Ueyi UiiriLvcdi 

IHyi liaidyedi 


FctfrtnvW I. A. 

l A. XX 111 


¥U«L. | 




(.'H4l r S'Ktt I 

lecksdahy ueclnnincs 

HilmrtMrV -DwiVBtM'T! if! flir ii'JIlI 'I'lilwA' t yrpth Ulstf lij '■[ ll-l i-tin= I.: jT 

afiii triJiti'nu-l it*-'' Jcs.i-r i. 'i’u|uvj m thr Irmn 
I'yrr^lirinu- liksinriEai LrvJ IricUUi'ral imtjcci, nl li"- 
jjkh-v nf I'yi M'-uc -i:i >j 

rL'U'in^ fcis- the -ifclejieiJ >e( v*L:"n^ 11 f l 1 .aD 1 i,fc*lir J ni-Pi -< ! ■■■■ 

TcTutfit> *if ihjt r-*r^ irf ihe Tlb^-iO >1 ‘h r e "hi- 

"■■j f ■ ■ Nellie jiiui i tj ii*i inn * >. I-S i-fc-ri >rr« -r- !> ' i-ll‘1- i lit 

I biL" i"| ■ i C ^ Jfi'1 Ehc I'nrjni - . fi LTunkii Ikl Minuet I‘I 
iniiauiEv 'nuj,L'J im ip ijT»?hi. riling »i '3'jkinil juCIi it.*, 
inJ k*>.'iiwr:- of &wet s)e»*rjp-bcnj , 

(, hCftLV A l [{JN OF THE w<*[> TU1.JUVA 

ifiticnc r J ' II \ UVS truci prised tht* tv ho I r Nil S-mie | 
l> hti E i i.‘ H 3<V(t l< p.irr rhCNthrEh K .imr.i I rit! lui^IKtinL'f of 
Canar u n a* a \ * p 1 ac l! ti« l h l J, i :• Lr i ui lji i 1 y i 1 1 coiri p« t tit < v s I j 
iiu.jfJ-r rn lirruis-- 1 Twliivj* u>clj,s i> eil-^i N 1 5Tt hilIl-s- iri 

I. WiLks muIL J ‘ L’ulnuu hv Mil: ninu C anun. i*i m! S fer' -Jbrj 

Bf iter Samk fij imfw, I.. P .> 1 1010 ); 1 ., p. 5 (ISM). Jtnd, il^ 

P"diifijn, .■$ Jammy lArciH^h jr, (Vn u.ira rni^ MNfakjr fit 

fc- 1 - m . ^ - k. I ■.! 1 ■ riF 1 1 rip | . i i| | i iv. I Ili ■ Cl Anil.- L - Jri;ni liii nl iidLp|>l iscJ fji 

risia j«ibt of Vi Liiifcu m Ind *■• ,-l f Vmpiir»l!rr r fVr. ■» v r I - /Jr 1 3 i./j n 

^"enojrri i tj, fiL n. ( 1851) . 

i- S^iTEwk. Cnnur .Wamtfir r p i. 

[ <’ 1 .. 

length, about twenty -five miles broad in its. narrowest 
and fifty in i lea in its w i dost parts. Pitt according to 
traditional as well as historic rd accounts, rliis province 
t xiendcd tar he* vooil l|* ma-dsMi ii'SKi hi the smrlli. 
The Legendary origin of j\1 o 3 n,Jaui r as cm.h(!die<| in the 
KtralcipuUi relates that the i ujvva-rijyi commenced 
r t i ■ 1 1 1 tr(j!k;n n.ii m tin: rnijih as far as P e c u m p u tu 
tn tlie south.' from the evidence of iHJCrtprioni 
io which we shall ndven in the course of this 
treatise, at will be seen that the northern limits oF 
i'ujuva as given In the legendary accounts ut Keraia, 
a re hy no means unreliable . hi fact, so Lite as I he 
sixteenth century a.U; , the people associated the land 
south of MirjSn., situated an an ihIci south i»1 Ahkotu, 
on the GanfUvidi rivet , with Tujiiva. 1 Ehn rhe name 
Tulm-fl came £ radii .dl*- to lie rest rioted to m sntnllcr 
area till with the an tit- * a i ion of tlic district by the 
Itritihli in ,\.|>. it vi-aa confined to a stretch «l 

land bordered on the north by she forest line of ^irAr 
:i 6 llI on [he south by the tov n of {Juiat-atibru ■ 

The origin of the word Tujnva remains still a 
difficult question. According to tradition the name 
Tufuva is traced to the activities ot a ruler eallfcd 
Ujipjt 3<,"tji p also known as t aitdr aSek ha f m - It La said 
[hilt in order Iti please the Brahmins, he gave them 

1, V,’ 1 1 id'u ■ , TV Madunnie C'pffrttcpiv > p - X, Qf. l 1 Ml.rm<ii*bhi 

Mown, tif Vay ji'ji , pp IS-M 1 { I ¥34)- Artfltbtr ¥dTiion of tin 

umt wGrii wty* ttmatlw vQU4i±hi tHHindary of Tulwva v, an [he Kan 

nLi'ruuu river, vmith nf Ke-fpi- Hikhmin r ep-. cit.t LEI. ij. B. 

2. Uirtwsi, IJoirlt. A Dncri(Ai"n 'jf fV C-o&rn ^ fair 4frifti .“jvJ 
. i, J , I . I .h ,.- r Etc. L p IR4, i» 2 . (UariMij 1-fining, 




munificent gifts Like the iuh-vrsr^a-iitrxi r the tvla^Am t 

*IC. 'Since he presented to ihc Iti a h itmti? , ho h^camt 
frem Ltitfsi-cnt provides, gold weighing one hundred 
l^tis each, he was catted TulibhSra, Tu|i Raja, and 
Tots Dedldhijnni, .md the peopte over whom Ilc /nkd, 
the fulup people, Further. the dynasty to which he 
belonged tame n> he fcnoun a* the Tolar iineJ 

IteraJa legends rhe name Tujtivn to one 
Tulumbhon IV it u miiJ . This niter, it is alleged, fived 
his residence at Katosvara, a prominent: iaivite seat in 
the northern part n.t I uluvu, just before Keraja was 
eepurAied from TuJuva. The country was r ben ref nr- 
wfirtf called alter hi? name,’ 

StiiTrcwk merely echoes Tht- opinion &f nthert; that 
the xtortl T ujitva could be imced to the word tJ fif 
meaning mifd. humble, meek, ctc.. v 

None oJ ritirsu cj^ r> Rtmtions ean Ea- given srlv 
credence , We muy diuniia* t h o last one as- being 
inadmissible both on KS$ tori cal and philological, 
grounds- Tn the first place, the achievement* of the 
Tuju people in historical times., as tv e shall present Ty 
narrate, bring out dearly Ira it jh the character of 
the early TufuVda quite opposite to the Onr which in 
indicated by the ingenious explanation offered by 
ftturrock Moreover, there is no evidence to prove that 
the word Tufu,— which is hot in common u&e, 

1- Cf. sfrloivBM Hfrin, itiihfUfri /Catmaifa JfHUyu Carilrt mlrttu 
i‘*wAvi tvywra Aliya k'ufftt, v ? tWJ. Itlugolw,, |y)Jj, 

3- Siurroeli. #_ V. i^ahnijf, E„ e. 2„ 

1. Starred;, j'M .■ QriiHrt. TvlaE^H'k tWonjry, q, *. 


sJMUFNt mg-nM'aha 

f Ch. 

Slur reck rtnurtt-il.-uiE fi(r Lui[«ni jmong 

i In- Tufu jhc-nfplc ihernflclccj; ; u n t| that tlic^ called 
Hit country which they inhabited by a name 
signifying: a I catti-re in their rhuiricr which they 
JLil not posse*? Turning u» the (ithci twn r*- 
planations. m r may mttu rhuE tli* *inry uL t< □ ccl:i hbujVs 
munificence waa evidently an invention ol the brah- 
fittn* l Tvh il e rhid ol TuLumbban l p eruina|. tvhotc iden- 
tiiv it sell is « 1 1 1 a uet ut i fee ul anon, uj^ the result c>E 
fOnfuaidTi bctwcrli iht 1 upends ol TliJiji i .iiul t Iioac ot 

The wftffi 'L'uluva may bu derived trum die Hj|c 
kaniNi^R up thiil i nut rilfir , u.i antic k/ s Ljjn U y mg i hi u re by 
ihu nature id < 1 «<‘ ancient 'I iiliii i ptLipIr n kaiiJ w:i rblc 
activities iri the curly apes ftl hir-toiy secured fur the hi 
c 1 .. i r ippilklMsIi I ruin theit lie ighhoisra , iht ■. l| li i i \ nr 
perhaps irtiirL auci-cJil KtrliLila.ku people. Evl i dense in 
support of rhi-s mat Eu- secured I Tons their folk-lore „ 
L M di tiujia . Is it h, games add publical historv . The 
stirring nagafi called h'^didanss contain their t olk lore ; 
,i :ii| these deseriil'iL-. at we shall prove in the later pare 
of this treatise, the activities ol gal Jan. 1 , men and 
women whose memories! a rr even nou cheriahed will 
legitimate pride .and affection bv the TtiFti people . 

1- The imliisoifkhy cj |hr LlriHvatinu a| Mil naira' Tubii from 
Tdir* ja w?il T»hpn T 1 r HKi; Lh:.1. L|;l L-arl ii-wl . ..i r i »T^I if If |||t nilll. 1 - eu 

TnlSlu. m>l n<»t Ti»li<rn. t'liii Dnir ’ p *lahx ■ppr-ji * in art Ahipj 
raC*fd A*1*ll A.D. IL40-43, IF* <j mf- Tlu Peminab themsrlm* 
wlte ftrrvavr* . Paul I 4 pan. .Uatifair ri»^irt«r h pp. 25t l , 14*. 

J. Cl. KiiEL-t, i^'fijimJiV.T.ffrfl'rr* I'tir ry , p. !>?., 

1 1 nmnvi lOSi OF tmf word tu^ova ? 

Tht t 1 1 ifiriK 41 1 i hr H-oragarn-, hOtneof w hum see an 
to h;ive formed ; part o] t h l- Tofu people . 1 [he > 1*1 hits, 
flic MhjIh? y mis , tin- Mn^tri, and others-, msLify out 

ifcSia rti p! pUI* 1 1 ’ -ri C tllfy F’caunce-.l to a warlike rare. I' hr 

(tiilLiI iiHl> 'll the Ki.H,i|^jii :■ . fur Lvumpk. l li 1 1 ig i ,:d' 1 1 -i n ■ 
drf{U of a pu^frful Knragar tiit° named Huh^ik^ und 
of hi* ticplicw, We shall infer in them IhUt rm in the 
c(rmrrf of [liis treat i se. The legendary account of the 
■HnleViis as recorded in u n«rnt(ivc called SahuiteitJtt h 
ctI*(I hy HutliJinam, rtbliTF lliiH a raler wlm he longed 
to thal Ifib-e seized uporl fin country. In [fie same; 
at to i in c we are told rhal tin: Miners, who now form 
the hulk of the ftfhcK- Mis uf 'fuliiui, assisted the 
HuEecai. I r ia btdiemrd the M.iilar* r I I Iji r - 7 1 
were (he fillers ■ ■ i the enimtirv Ruined f^rt* at 
Itfaddflr . tour milts t?i the no-ri h-nnn I ,-ein-t f:S Kihiar- 
and at K 5 v« t thirty- five mi Ls* iu the nor th-eant 
of filename tu wit,' hear wllur** [<j the oliku tinny*, y\ lien 
the war -[ike Tnhj people had conquered the count r', - 
Am pb cMJence ean he gathered 1 rrtm (heir games 
in. order to estahlish their claims I'ut martial aerivilics 
ni (he past. Spurts like w\a b&ti-ttn'fcmi . iapfvptfi'ti . the 
jafrfj, IfitfiJa-jQju. (Dfe-doro, Icstim], 

and t hese art the ntirvivj|* of the far~nff times; 

wbfr, the militant Tufu people w rented the pwt>er»hip 
t|Mhe land from 1 lid hands nf (lie aboriginal ihhabifanlFi, 

f *>i til,- Ki'TiynT., ria.J Silihr,|r« if. If'rftf V'nA. Sa t n.i’/th 

p. 43 , fUfroE, | 0 ») 

i.irt) (j-.-ujU, f '..i J< mil,. ,i jJl }'\ - M f. ^i, 

Trp|*, (Mndiis. IS» 2 > 




Aji/kcpi^frfHiw T= a fa votifitc game amnng the HilUvura 
and the Uutiti. It in a contest between two jtenoiu 
“‘ho Ei^l d eveujmuti Ln iheif palm? at a distanci-' oi 
ebaut tweKe to (cutteeD inches, and brine tine fruit* 
ant: against the other simultaneously , In this (;^ic 
the broken fruit is the property of rhe virtue. The 
fflpptfrrjjtfpi ts a game which ip played in the Open in front 
of a household- A COcoaOUt shorn of its fill ro * and well 
smeared with nil, ts thrown into the air A ■jcFiimblo 
l allows at 3 given signal among those present— I he 
jiti'rjjTfj'e, as the youth ol the locality are called , — and 
the strongest retains it in his hands as a sign of victory. 
This game: i* eonmtin among all classes of people - 

ISut the a.’ntritft /Sirs ;s a pastime which is hccl'i only 
among the H n leyas. It is held at Erma|, UdayUvifji 
(near Udipij.. ind BaJjamanjr. The offlfiflJi jfifrfi ii a 
mock fight with staves about three,, some times sis, 
fee t in lengt 1 1 re pr csen t i ng stwor ris n he iw ecu tw o par ties . 
The j&5Hd#-.wn °r cock fight is indulged in by all tlattes 
nf people except the Rrahmans and the Jaina. We have 
dracTihfd it e (a r tv It e re m detail.’ An equally interest- 
ing and imiverKjl flame is the etyila nr a sort :if foot 
ball played during the t a moos jntfV at Folali. It La 
tit EJ on the occasion of ihc cur festival which takes 
place on the TVIlna 5a ilk r a mans h in the famous Raja raj e - 
S vafl Du rga Far jmeivarl temple . Popular belief con- 

If HtlfEuiL' Tht Quarttri) Jcwncl i(t Ik* .WjfJicr Smiity t XVI I , 
pp. 3L6-32T. 

BfRlYAtlOtt OT TUT WORD 1 111.11 VA 


T 1 

n fir. Is the pliV (rtrid l I 1 ',v Li h Tin e health Hit the ^arfjHri 
named Cjn^lji anil Mlulldn .. 1 

More interesting ihflu the above is the torch light 
called mtt-dSfti whitli as best seen in ih lUppanadu 
ji'Jw, a JMhtirb of MuLkt, Mansatore tSIoka Tl ts hehl 
a i Eisgtit itt front of rt|« fturfjl Piirameitvurl temple :it 
BHppinldu.- ()n]y twit rival parties part in it l the 
people of Bappanadn and i Vim of Kirniidu. The Utter 
are led by the G und3 1 household (martefii/Htj ; while thosHf 
Hif K amldu , hay the 113 1 eh itt a I is and the Nadi k ii ctnro 
people F, a c Ii party eons is t s of seventy to ninety men. 
They are stationed ,it u distance of about fifty fuet . 
Torches of eo-LOiiia Nt leaves About two and a huff (o three 
fcea in Length, art: prepared by the Holey as of the 
rcspeciivif v i 1 1 ^ e; ^ . The combatants arc ex pec ini to 
have taken a ceie modi a L bath and to have abstained 
from dftnliing liquor and eating meat. Every errnita 
tam has t«,-i> to three torcTie* at h;& disposal. :\t 
a given signal, the me]] of the K a m ba Ja&im a I ip hr a 
torch and pive it to the leader of the Happanldu j^ajnti. 
Littiisc a man From the \]3pm'sH.iili4isi;na Jtives a 
lighted torch to the Kiirnidc people. On a sacond 
signal being given h the mo parties throw at rath 
othoi the lighted tnrcEie*. The gume hate for about 
fifteen mtnutei; ivhcn the 1 ca de rs- o F hot h patties end it. 

are un^hlr to determine the Rijjt’niriciincv of this 
‘Mettsting snd unicjuu Tvlwi ^imt. 

1. Cf. ESl'Uik, L.'I rnlrr, ji . 2?fl 

^'JirNr KABKST.TlH. 


i tl:. 

Ail i l| m u. t] > noLCO'Oriy (porl nl' th« lulu people i ri 
the hunt in}; « \< vrsi 031 oil thr hf^tifuia dflV$. TFiis- 
> «'i mi mi ill In ;il! like pcupic anil in lif|il UVCT | E| t- uJiei Sk- 
id [he dhs It t ie t - l"h« Hrnival lupins, according 

Hi Jdnif, mi I In. 1 2+Mi ui I lii! lulu month of Miyi 
(February- March), nr according to otlicia, ™ the 
2?lh ut Makaxu |i. i'., nil of ahnm the ,ith c> | Pcbruarv), 
and la&l« iQMhrec dju-s. Ic is tie Id, H.ct'Ordmg to tine 
[mpikar iLemii i'ihIihi, (n citm memo rate Mothe r Earth'? 
pltn Heat inn. -Vll tlie Tofu people suspend work on 
tTirsi days, and fin a-huilting lnutrf. rabbits and wild 
p:£i rm*. Food prepared »ut ot baked Aeiju -or hoise 
f um I tin) i fhnt irni//nTiiO rici: i« fsiti'o diiping eFlcj-i 
llifte day*-' 

Tin. I i f in utVi^-r 1 K ;lh h aJa ^r'ej is £11 Lil tu ail 
vniimrv huniiiiijE ciLpcdmmi cun J lice t d rim 4 Ijrfc sluIc 
hi the chieftains «l a locality. Itow h e j r i 1 1: ■. tin 
1'uJuva ckieftiiki.- condueied eIu; b£jr iir will lie -^een 
’A' lit ei we shall dfscnln- the li-le td the people. 

Tilt ii h lift treaded ei celts It mat carlr ten t nr if « »i 
the Chdltiill Cft down m the tiittcentk century, and 
t specially tin- risi: ol a 11 iridigcnons principality n Me!* 
■ 1 Hied i,\ i'll* I v 11 n the strc-ngih ■>! Tu|uva arnii a iiiLivliir' 

I Tn' 'urm t-'. iv r» nl»o inri’n EO ihir diirugt i>i On d iWpinl 
hi sIh n ind ITiu nsrtti-EafliT wiiitti Ixiimi. in litiv,i in. J-VI»r«iuTy 
Miriilh 11, ti'litfil (tie h ■‘ilrfflin-v-ji'i The Ae&tam EXLUTsk-in of Tilfihw 

1 ■ 1 hi onmipiflTEil L-i itii annUi} 111 nil i ii l frtall' it- ,.| lln- 1 1 - 1* iif I I ,“ir. 
^hptmi'i I'n Ah^im (d Thi h* foul* chr Mimdii fi(». unJ ttir rttfalt 
1 i n' J ti cf tl>c Enht? in Piliir. Ki-iid, ICMt-linr-; fST « i c .i i 1 «f 
^rHihrt, V„p 'Jl). ft. S. 


rrf-ii'VA |\ iHh i > > -.t mu or I'vt.ihnXuji 

Ja:EL.-iI till tkf fouitetntlt cenlurV itti'i-t lO ihf Warlike] t e ilf I tic l'v|uvi prop It in h i £.rn r ic J ] tsBncp. -One 
t , spmfiijnn jilrraF-e uirJ In inscriptions m ^ufiAcvtion 
with tiitm. ;is Kill lii,-- given ill detail when we shall 
dnl with The political hi&tcry of the province, inV „ 
that host ■ It- r ukrs were like t puh murine fire m the 
dfeuti the I'uluva army {TuIrcja hula 
aijds 10 Liu tefl-tininnv tliiM is decidedL in favour of the 
fatly Tufuvas huinsr cons id lt ed as a people of a Jig res- 
it ive ha-hit*. 

2, TL’Ll.'V* 1\ 1111: Lh[>t-.M)OI- V A £t.V*l : H A M A 

Tu juvanadu, or ^ if known in early times 
Alvafcheda mi- j mui hv itself pi rue the earliest nj(i;t 7< 
but h according to tradition an well g» history, It is 

entirely cmmiiQiii to Vi ilh the vnm-piM r nl I hi 

Sttuih i'jnr.rij AJihim? chit n-tc drlicilt-U hlSTon*: r-Kirurd 

relating tn South Kanirahas been found of earlier date 
than the eighth i>r ninth century A. D.n and that “it 
muai t;t:r(^iii|y hE off time hare lornifJ |)«rl <d Kctah. 
or Chora, ' I lie we stem most of the rhret' ancient Uriiri- 
diitl kingdoms mentioned Lit r III- ftdicT* ot Jimperor 
ASttta . 1 An enquiry in in the origin of Tu|Uva as *n in- 
dependent unit brings us, m the tlesctiptinri «f \br 
potion altit yinf wh lavements nl out of the most 
rtmarkablri iiKurejf known in- Hindu trad it inn. IT i i>. was 

1 - * 5 111’.- unLH j » ir |; U H, J 1 vf Li i u- I djI'j jik a llhr ri.'t"Tkl , J JV ,>r tkr 

EtietnpitiL.tF (1,-11 .4 ifts V ( "fir fin- !Ofl| .S’„Luft Udiitu InffriHi^af 

VII, No. 317,1*. I"S. 

-■ SciitriK-t, -S.", f |, p. F 4 , 


jtrtClENV Ji.ftHNS.'T.m* 

I CL. 

the jiinluu:- Jam ud J ((nya , nr Far Iisiu t ini a , as he wa* 
known ltrarf popularly, to whom ia iriCTLlicd tll-f exitf- 
1 encc of Tu |uva jt- a s e pa r ate historic province. 

The story os' Jfmictagnya, or ttima, as he is called 
in the Mtifwlbhurata , briefly told is (lie following;— Once 
king KUrtavfrya, also known as SahasrafcShu Arjuna, 
because he had been undwtil whh. a tli ouNa nU arms by 
Dattatreys N — ruler of (he H^ihiiy ii tribes with lii* capi- 
ta] at Maliismati, came to the hermitage of Jamadafifli „ 
He was receive (I hy R^nuka wife at' the great Rsi with 
a IS (Ijc respect- Flnt Kartadrya. filled wick the pride 
of hij valour, in return to her hospitality carried off 
ulonp wj th hi m by vialqscE the calf of the milch 
COw d{ the Slilil'J dll ] a t ionn jiruL rase d own the tall trees 
surrounding etie her milage . Bbirfia-va, un being cold b_Y 
libs father *bnui the cow, killed the king. The sons nif 
KirtjvTrya revenged the ileacfi oF their Father by 
a (Tacking the hermitage ot Jamadigai., and slaying the 
old kti when Rama wits away, 

Riftil ih sorrow vowed to extirpate the whole 
Itsatriyo race. He killed the sons of Kart avlrya h ami 
t fir tec styen times cleared the earth of the Ksatriya 
cascu; jiruL with their blood filled the five large lakes 
of Sairsantapahcaka, from which he offered oblalionato 
the race of UlLrgii, Here he Savi his sire OOCC again; jin J 
On being 1 1>1 d by hi ml what 1 ■! > ■ J 1 1 , ItniiiiLoffcrcd n idIcihil 
sacrifice to (he king of the gods, and presesned the 
earth to the ministering priests, To K aiyapa he gave 
the ultai made uf gold, ten I a thorns in Ecngth and mhe 

I TtJt.(JvA IK THE LEUitfD W l b A*A^lRAMA LI 

in he kin, W i 1 h (in. - per m is s ion ol K a-iya pa . ( h* Bra h mans 
divided it into fiieets arnan.jg'Et ihrmfelvtv r ur.d they 
were the cite forward called [\liapda viLynna Hrfthm'jrti. 

The jtton us s « j 1 d in the JV Bjad bamw set lion of the 
S'UMi Put tip ndds that when ] ii m atl u^n ya had f iverc the 
eatth to kasyapa, ihc Latter desired him t □ -d epAT t r as 
there waft no dwelling place lor him in ic r and in te;|ta Li- 
te (lie seashore ol the south. It w*s here that the 
Ocean relinquished to liiinm (he marl time liisifLci uf 
Surparaka. It must be remembered that the Sur|wi- 
raks. regiWi is distinctly said ro be the cr cat inn ol 
Hara^uriim ";l l hu,s in the ^’'irrii' Panta ■.— 

Ti\tnh S fc-rpOivAtlpr dc# arp Jojf(T7 , nff fas jd tiiftoiomr l 

$afia.i2 JHutciilfiiinyasyci lS'ojki rd ™J r r.-.- . .- J j ■ J r. ,'rjr.-i It L 

Willi the above story whieh L narrated in iheAfiiiia- 
frAdrtt'tir and repo lied Ln the PntAnas; we mn\ proceed 
with our narriLtive <>■ nil iho k-ftsinns; of the story aa 
$ir«n in the Puruwjj , that mrfated in the S^h jirdri - 
of the Sfeflrtrfff Pnrflflfl has an intimate hearing c«l 
the history of Turov*- 3 The version in the Sahyiidn- 

!-■?. Cf. Sp.lr1."‘i l* . J fe nrv];viir . r tfiifn?]/ unit IsfjfiTiA. l?ip^T 

fe»d ac tJh- VlJ . AiUInJiii Oitqibl Copfititnce. QaciMii, L933 j Rend 
iltA- the .WjA^flMiiiT^!^, Vans r^ec (7XV, pp. 1S54J - r I'linCi 

6e«- Ilf pp. fr. req, : J'jjns AiiiFiw, pp. (6W, end -Hit, n. <2I) ■ 
JfBinu Pi**#!, Chi, XLll-M.IV. pp. 110-1M. See *kr> Mi. pr 
L12-S14. il'alaitdirS; funEuif . | |f. CCCXXVI- t . ifOS.fCalcunai, 
iftt'if, Ch. IV, it. II sfit. jip r 4-5: C!Ji. V. v. M, p, 5 (l'r»n» 1900): 
Bbigt niu Fur/im, Bk. IK. Cb. IS. pp. fCikxun. 10% J. 

PmLuJCT rjir^., , Vflit, 1 V. Ch. ]«, pp. 1 fc+7, uq. (PfHn.., I (Wl) . 

J. iSAieviu Ptedva, Vtiajicdfo,, Ch, V" I , v. '21.. beq. p. 324. 
***<■ (lid. Gefian d CnJniij tamnay 3)73). 33 l:i-:L sl^-s 
Clr., l h V. 33, P-3114, nn ihe hrahmnna itr^cjiintc the yrtil h-ird, 

tNC] F NV LAftNAj S 

| O. 


*•»«■•« i* oibf.iiini ially die s.tsnr m 1)14 1 related above 
with l lie except ton ut ,l i«v detail* wh ieh w i LI he 

■ vinnnt d prea-canly . 

The stor^ of Pa tufii rinui dating hack as it docs t<j 
the times ol the: ^rfi:r.frii.r«i and helart, cinnui he alto- 
gether db missed ps a fascinating fabrication or rln.- 
fertile Briih man brain*, liven six tin- risk. ol digr^j.*. 
in£ a Hi Lit from the main pan nl our narrative* we 
mav. he: permitted m make a taw obsc r va t iema eunee rn- 
me e 3 us. great figure,, especially as gathered licvra thi: 
writingB of Hindu writers 11 nd epigraph] cal records, 
i'lietr notices, a* wt shall see at nnec j will help us ni 

■ lutidrla chf alleged CfraiiMl '■! ‘1 liFuvil by Jilnia- 

dagnyj hi eIil Siah&bhanttu itedl v. ■. hive a Tew place? 

iisrO-clated ta-ith llw iust-il .md greatness ■:! Pjrj^urima. 

1 ’ruLeedhip ne^r the mountain called Malicildrp, n e 
.: 1 e mid in thiii t-pEr. inhabited nl yurel bv Jamsdagma . 
pud balking in Kama's drfjVii f il person «ic ^ui #£.'1 1 - the 
u^rit 01 a horse-sscritice.' In the same work tt-s m-e 
informed that alter t biting the asYlltiit of Hj.ralilipn'M , 
one should proceed in Surparaka where J.irtsadaeni '- 
- ■m had immttlj dwell r Bathing in that tlrthii nf Kama, 
one acquire rh tin merit n|' ay gold in ahum 
dpuH.-r . 3 !>himmy,i relates to Bharuta. further rh;ii sit rTipt 
same Surfiaraka are two sacr-i ii r i j I pin 1 forma «i' tin- 

illustrious Jama dagni called Pflft 5 n.ii itdd Pniium jindra 
The -Vfuriu iiifr^jr mlofjii>. as that alcusg the 

isi-rf 1 hern hall ol' th* Galiya mesnn tains is die regimi ij. 

!- 3 . I'.IM JF-'.ir>^ r l,XMiV, l.KXXVm, (ifi. TX, 37 ^ KJ. 


i,v 1-1 i '.'ll [lie fiodS-vafl I tuV-' l h ;tnj winch ie ■. i H. I L FT 1 1 1 1 Li I frtr 
when compared with the whole world And Cnvif 

{IImI'IH il tilt ClltlC Illllllfi tiiiy LJ I lit ElilEll-f I'lLlELxj 
llliii it;n .! rate . 

He ^reiices to Pma^urlm-a and his crealirpiB oil [I- • 
n'tST Cl’iUS-l sire illsO liiimd in [lit Rii^frni'ajn^ a v. Fli rt 
F\ il I i diisu Rive* clear evidence id I he legend havi n g her ri 
current in uln&ui the linl' fmtuii i ,1> While deBcrdt' 
i pljt HiipFitiV march iFi rough the Saliva regions amF 
Kcruja.. lied the adjoining Lands nn tht mt rcMS-t, 
Fiiil idrUj Aits- 1'1'iJir v, i tii ka^liti 's- vast armies spread 
17114 ill view ol CAU^IiCtittg iht ivcut, the in til 1 1 U L r 1 

laionc limct sent hue* hy iln. n ■ if ■'.i l-c- M Pai-asmum ■ 
lm j v. appeared ah it touching n l'lien, again. it is 
mcminned* continues the pott . that tin- itcejin when 
entreated, RlVC ■f^ice to Pgrasuranaa ; (the same wean) 
non p.iiti irilnjii tn KapEm through tk kin^ ot the 
tve* t , Fit il inter vcmtvKt. KS liii-iisa informs io liar 
prince E" rati pa having obtained the god a I lire as an 
ally in hat tie. lie considers tIie aluarp trd gt o| P;im^u- 
r Lima's :i\l nhich is the ll-il dc.irtLcc.ttLi- night to the 

I’l-Sj [ : i ], :i s to i'll- no iiiftr'i: Eh an (Fit- jic’lll ijI it Jntkis 

White ii.n rr^tinfr the stfin nt' E'ara*i|f5mu himselt 
EiliidoH informs tw that he destroyed the Ktairiitt 
fV ETltlMint cum - 

Il A i^irAriJJifc wji i 1 ■' tie ri* « |j » p , 1 L i . 

2 . tk:] lid;ib>n. toffAuP'iiinu IV.?*. 55: VL -12: XL w, 47. 

Aiul ahif * 0 . j| uhert llii thi*i Is- cribs 3 rts urtsvjcif: *»f S J rmM-irys 
E*i™srily«ai|i, (ttombiiv. L°l '■ i 

14 AHG[ENT KWNAfUiA H" 11 - 

AlIUMOnH t<i the naive 1 uJ MUliisiiidlt, ''ii.iias-iabiihn 
\ r j ij n a., and Par asu r 3 m a .ir« made hv liana ail Fits 
A"<?df[j»it r| eirv. A portress, who approaches kin^ ftfcdr*ka 
iwiili sonic iww'i, is- 1 litis described ; Hike ilie blade »t 
PurH^urima^s axe shi.- held the circle at' tings in £ubnm- 
1; ion, 1 Then, again, ihe parroi Vaisampayana relate* 
how it siu the Sahara army coming; out I mm the I art- s-ts. 
of tide Vi ndhyas, It was like the stream n| Narmada 
titssed hy Ar iuiia’s thduMnd arms. 3. While clcscriEiinj!: 

Candtapt^'fi deftness in the use ot' arms, Bann wriies, 
that his shifts, lihe «i Parasurlma when the latter 

I'-S.-Lv.i.'d in en-naume thi* forest of earth's royal sterna, 
Liluit only cite hi^hept peaks 

liven the jLi-eunt of « t'orciiici writer of the six- 
teenth century s.n- cun tains echoes of ihc fid legend 
Duarte llarhosa thus r v nsyi r k-y d while vi riling about 
"I'uJuvaftSLlfu which he called Tulinat: — "And the 
ludiiiris snv that in fur met liiUes a IF theie low grounds 
were sea, which reached tu the h-huS ratlfv (1, c., (he 
Western (ihaish and that in process wf lime l he- sea 
uncovered it. and s-waLLu-wed i I up in other pHrts-, and 
to the foot al tlioiL maun lain*. There are many traces 
of things of the tm 1, and (he lew r round is very level 
like the sea, and the mountain chain is very craggy , 
and Beemn 1o tike! Ii'i The heavens... 1 

l_s, pan*. P^rv. pp. Hft. 3W (Kit. by iSii 

Jiuii.lii;-j, H, SiUHLliinL* \y$vL C*ten*r I'Mfll. |i|l. S — 1 . 'SI 

Si. (RldJinn)- 

4 | h»Eic Rut ton;, A Paf[L£Uc»f , 4 jD^icefpion »f ui ■ C-otfitr - I 

E.-it Afr/w .UifiuAvif r Etc -p. (M IStftf.lLy, ljMidsn, ISfi&l 

J1 TULUVft 1M TilE J-iCEtd|h fiP PMUtfiVUAsH 1? 

tVf Hav^ t« lurre Ks f hr Ki\tea‘ntb rdltlirj , thcre- 

t ore , in ■ntclET to mffi with people who ascribed thi: 
origin of the western cn^st, and with u the bcgirtniaipK 
of t-ht province the history of which forma the subject 
of cmr narrative- nut tn the doing* of & remarkable: 
pe rEunag e Ijni ' '■■ a sublet ramean ugermy iti outlie pnlaco- 
]iiiL:t period which The ancients masked under the 
puLac o! 3 legend. 

Never! he less the achievements of Piruurimi have 
been recorded in epigraphs ranging from the first 
quarter of the si nth cePLtiirj-- s.n. to the first quarter of 
tht tiitrecnth century. The Gafiga kinjr Hurt'inLia 
Kongunividdha, who ascended the throne in a.d. M, is 
called in the M^IISh plates issued by hittuself and dated 
in hi* fortieth regnal year fi\ ■■ , ,s„u. 522-3), “ an incaj ■ 
nation of Pa r asur am a in the an of Lining tuO'irs , up^strej, 
and Other weapons ' 1 The Western Ciilukyn ruler 
VifiajrSdifcya fsatyisraya, son of ^ulikc&in. Jl, is praised 
thus in a record dated tyit l- That h l w is reckoned 
to he jin elephant- goad to kings Lite rurasursnia 1 This 
is repeated in an inscription oFA-E.fiW ' SrTporusa'iivarr.ia II, the Gangs king, is said irt a record 
date d A.r. “J^l to hu in valour like the son at lanri ada^n i . ' 
This eulogy in regard to the same valiant monarch is 

jtfjuftxf Artbaningital Aepwl t'Oc t 1 J 2 ^ . jj- ■ ■■ E ■ (In Lli i’-ali 
nf tiii am-islon, ruid Kie«. If rwif itjsJ Cm'rjj Jriwa the Irfcriptmu, 
np-. £, IS. 

iS’pijir.sri'irii C'UTifijjtii-.h, VIST Sb 531, p. 91 
lihd, Ja . tost. IH,, p. fci. 

*■■ Jhrf, V I ■ Sh l p. IV. 

V^CIVNl hJ*S!*AT.',K I 

l (" h - 


rcp«iir«cL ill SI' 77* and « in s.u, 777 ' Evtn ifi tJn-r! 
reign ni i h l- fjahpn kinm I'i.revapfM Nhimtrgi (1, :tci 
iitacrif>lH'n djtcd \.u 903 tit ? l- r il>c.m i |>u r ii>ci PrthvT 

,i mi, i II tcj Ih: Lii valuur JuiMuilLt^tii u . 3 

KSjciulc? L’uU Dcra K,i.' l(lln s r>. 1 Cfci4.l Is ljllLul d 
wit El tlit inihj ue*i * ul a prc*rt many fnrts and cities , 
ami cnjicciJiLty with tin.- perfurminiee of n deed wtii els in 
in all res jie^ls a insular in tin.- hi*nnw «f Pa ra^uT^ m i , 
Siiifriiitinnn rarijiny from a.d. lOPi rill about M) H^l 

111 aim Jill 1 1 '.vi [ ilia? great I :T ITT k I FL|Il-F VU[lE|u l _ F £hL ''nmtiy 

ancient islihttn u^ciiftly guarded frem time immemo- 
rial hy the *£'J 1 1 :■■ > iij n d i nu: v. ItIi coiiche* ; arid tin- trim n 
■a | |<' veil <1 n rtrlliV Of I alcftm , which ' irj^nr.Irn.u. whn 
ill iLPH-Fr exti.rjJAIud kilUTr- ['■•ciiry -i‘ILu times in biitt-e. 
liiuL d<- piih'. i t hi rl in the iltaCCcduililc isandiina ijl^n f lS L tc J 
^lAdlm?, and l i niK" rft rird (.’Sirdirtiiii) i*laiul < fLavEng 
e (insider i;d it a secure plait ’’ ("afldimai inacurrup- 
tiafl p( SaAtimm. -OF Sahli manta ; 1 and it may bs 
idellliLLed with the island &3h[i nu'iitnuitd. in Lit:- '| u|u 
GritnwPaddkait aslias'ing formed one <r I the sevynrv-yeveEt 
inlands which belonged Em the Ghoristra on tin.- western: 

L, K. l\* tv. N=. -p. 13S l Mjf I .IrriW. Hept., Wli p. 

K. 1 ■ LX . Si. f'l- p.*0- 

2 f, C„ X- [i. J4. 

JS tWtf. K- HI. Iltot*> n. 32; ILL. SJ- 13* p MFV . X. Kl. n r 

i- 1 1 ■ XI . fl. 31 r i I - TX_ 34 . p .r. flf r- n**..|. (hiir-iL V, n 1 

1 1* 1 1 'pS *' 'liti .1 A II 10 it r l } /. ti. ihiiin ^ > jrj- r iat l r n:i - -s;:r:^ .ildi 
Allan t liiMind die kinrs In enty jhm: limn See i1»n Miwr Cn 

J p. J14- (rei 1 rid j: My, p 4H. 

-I L )r S. K A i s J 1 1 |T: 1 1 ti mi ' .■iimi^Il Ilk cl I w tn u l t 7 jn..i, r 

IfiJt WH (H-£lh»LiK lint 'L illi 1 1 fiiTfr, |«r ” ,1' ti lilaht i Hut ibnut :T* 

local irm li= sr*i- n™i cdrtjiii 19 A . . 

5 ] UIJ.V 1 A IN 3 HE Id-hEND \ii CVPWIAmA 17 

oi India.- Hut un lurthcr ilttailh ccner r mnji this 
island arc- nvfliloMe either in hi«tn:re nr Itjrtri j. 

VinavaditY-a ftatySiirayj wa? nnl t“ e wily carer ei 
CSL ukya ruler whose warlike activities are associated 
wit h Parawurilrna, The I j n i-: 1 1 1 - Vi k ram adit yu VI, more 
gcmnionly catted J" ribhuvanairalta J I , and V ikramahka . 
who ascended the throne in A . d . 11)73^4, is E.hua desmih- 
cd in a record dated a. h, L1G7 :- ' c h t- resnlmH-na*« »f 
him who- ifi itrder tu d.estrtn list K^atriyasi in iln; 
earth slew the- kmps tw cnly-cme times. 

Thh remarkable achievement u| Prtntfdraiiia is also 
connected with the rise oj out "l the feudatories ni :ln 
tame grtal Western < itukya mrmarrh inscription 

dated tifllv in the 3 *{ E ii rcuri'l I '-■.a; • •’ [.he king V ikrjwii- 
dilvA VI (i. Ln V..-. III].' LlL'aliup with 1 1 -. r i.iriiiin hi 
his feudally DaijEi^a, nf ting tjf the Ilali 

tii^e uod nt thi Hit] 'pin a I mill rlilrr isvi t Kisytkiid-, 
iays the fnltuwing Hlion Jiinmdiigni.-a came in the 

I- ^rinUjihiii I k^dt n-Eerrinp to u copy al chi f.'rpiuiipwMAa'N' 
*"ii in- lm. 1 ' bt< n in lli«. pweMCBof I’talji SabtMnnficnfin. rnurn r^i i-:-. 
4 c WYuntv-iki-ui iJliiriJi vlhcli I'.ifnLuii j. pnfi l'T [Imi Ut) Qf 
t.Jfir/j .. l iiiiui /1 'j •/ v v I 1 V. i ■ iJi:k. n;!tfln ,.h . .illiL tih'eWtL 

ft is Wt ntUQticipi iS id nay in 5 n-t t '-r - o'ti ■") ihe'' which 
I k»vt ttHLin-d ffinrtl VHIialtl ]i:iElM’L 1 1 ' !> r :irl OhoT • | r ' !,L''.mt 
i® hut |i«vn h.fti. ' I (, (t>. I h fi"E n - '* - ilJi ;m-,v.'hjirt -n 
C)i il ii (i-.-umv. hrvrn ifftiidt "illy ibt fiittwrini: ictin 
1 ® tK 1 Sh iiktji: 1 1 — 'i ■ i 1 1 'p 1. 1 ( i ■ . i.i'I'UMt’buf of \l>j)kih I nrim.ilmturn 
ttKlii-miuOi-ip.i, I hi(r itiiilufj iL-nd Jlulhhial. iiiLuru . IliiLtppnf HanUVir»- 
whicb ii .ilkOthLr IUIUl- ten ] 3 cWltt:l(i:i[(i. ibv iiLlii-r:-. J|-r ^HilSl n-rd 
to * ,r JQ 'L'uhivi. El A 5 

Jr fi.- f?., YJl At. 1 3-1 ^ -p, 'tt ; VImuE, iiym- K^h- ItiiitirM, p, 4 U 
Itt-cd.), |i| w.'^. iHl •■weit-icm. vti VkVr.irmje rti j V ] in, * .c,. It to. 

C.W,, i’. 

ANflJEKT mukAtaka. 


[ Ci, 

etiunse oi I* IT- wmiJerinJI? in u-ht^h lie l| F?.[ reject the 
Ksatriva race, there were benrn from the cav-ce *f mount 
K istlj'nIltS certain heroes from whom r* p c ;-.ti i? Lite 
members of tin’ Balt nee. whu are she «m arums* of 
rise B^ppuris, ' 

Visijsstvardkanji Jtittsfra l>cva is |li u.4 p-niked ill n 
record dated a.Li. llfiU: To kins Xaraamiili avufTna. a 

<T*|n ruler, fine wasl like hlhxc to a tree or FaiiiSurliin^ 
ro Sahasrahflhiu,-thf& wonderful k£nj; \ i^-niJ became the 
dtsttoyer i, hundred iiTnefl «f Rs;itpyafl, F 

R tilers on the eastern toast too were associated 
with the iutticoI E'arasojrani;i but th 1.1 nmf it s* wjsFi 
one of Ilia singular characteristic I cat urea, The MaltH- 
nwitijalrx'vEra Kondapadmati Huddharsjil, who helonj’eci 
to the Sudra caste, in called in VP. 1371-2 a Par# iu r3 m a 
i<n keeping vOwsh* 

Tint it ik gcOe-ru I 1 1 the InOn nr rhs nl the K ti.riiillp.ka 
and the western p" rt*. of India whom: martin t deeds; 
reminded the people uf ihr valour of PamsnrSnta. 0| 
ik Ka|ieuriya king K&yimuriti Swyi, Deva, also tiiJJeci 

Soma, an inscription dated a. u, 1374 relates thus ; 

“His jJofU Aivaithlhlfi a causing with afjeotion she 
moustaches 3tid beard o| ihaC Soma to prow thick, as if 
for ornament, when Parainrama with a raging fire of 

I- f , ’pic iP,J a ! *i <‘ Vurftnr, JtV. |ij m, 

2, I of STfavatfu Sik tSft, p ||JJ [Lm ed.4. 

I’viiJi ileV. nhif- ttfrfi co-Thu uipi'lik'n of ibc CoSis frnmdir Ksi.rn>ii.-i|cj 
country, Si* 1 Riw. JMji. S? CViffrjr-, p, Ti, 

3. b I., VI. p. 253, 


fpry came to aw allow up l he kini;- ■ with p/tai .ih'fcc- 
■ p re*e rw d 1st m , and together with a sign (<ir crtist) 
tire r*--i of Kijtcuri to that f and I y — itiss livafwriii* 

Vira Narasirnha ll 1220-1235) of the Hoysaja 
dynasty, is described in a record date A, u, 1223 H to he 
L *stfongrr I him FaraSdrSma 

The curlier stum of Para&utiima having reclaimed 
the land Ek given in an ErscrEptiEsfi dated a n IjtH 

thus ' — Having Ccirfied buck the ixieiin H.:id e<in avert'd 
the earth, the Acme oJ mifihf nod liberality, the side 
[Cfflpirorv of fame, was Jimadug i'lV a wha, L ji i ri er t|i l; 
K^atfiy [ha. I fjuln enjoying the Girth were felled w if 9h 
pride, made it aa far as encircled by the ocean the 
possession of ihe Urahmant 7 

ftcmims-cences of the pi mis iIk of ParaSurSnii in 
Karnataka as we IE .us in the regions around i[ mat non 
be mentioned, A defaced inscription dated A,D, 1538 
of the times of the Y i j a Yanagari monarch Acyuta 
HSya, informs us that Pafft^Ufirna had sel up the image 
of the goddess Kftjshi in the nntyo 4 -tc fra of iJabcsm 
Kojah, and thnl (in the same year] tie name ul lltat h;i[y 
place was changed into KriliUa TChSrjiava A I "he god in 
the Vehkataramapa t cm pie at Laldmndaniihn!!! in the 
llteakotc tiilukA. i* said to have been set up by 
Par jfiurSjna , according r< • the ^fioin-Tiri&riPijfii «f lh = 

1. § V II_ fit- 2J[k e- ISli- i Myi. I irirrj |jri iuio p. 12_ 

3 , IS. C. r V ] I- trt jfla , p, 146. *■ IM, X, K1 , 1 ll, p- 44, 

3. K.C., X. r Kl. 114. 0.44: Afy F nhf. R^pr-. f*f 1^1^, m 7. 


E (*. 


]]ir::cii.i^.i jnr in til l- Kadur district, as the 

of i lui plate relates, was once the r«idtnce 
uf nine .t’dii l nr iaitUi, who performed ficimnte near 
. pond in the village known as SidfUiaiiusltJirarii. It then 
became the residence id Papl^urama. An image of 
ltamn was set up there. The Itwn alsc contains a 
i insular memorial It is the temple of Pamiu., nr the 

akc of the hero, I’he t< n was re christened as 
HharKavapurL 1 

Sorsh t ■“ Itika, is the ^orah-hT which whf JaniaJigniT 
possession ("he temple n: Reouka, fh ruth it of Para^Li- 
r;lm:i, eyitfiriK to this d,iv, at Q rlra grittl , Ls Said EQ 
mart th« spot whero the turn t herself on the funeral 
pyre i:f her |i i ish H nij lI .md tin reniplc lit E-E.6lijl.u.mfn;i 
ui ]\i>Jin is said lo hj', l: huen tt cctcd in ter honour 
from KStiacTr v:l’m EiAvinp heea dtiu there. The 
cnlEULiuy with SflgafH »* said to turve been held near 
I 'irthiihitlji ll v its. here at Tlrllmhalh that Parasu- 
rSona stood ahd aimed his an.c ai Sugars, as is also 
narrated hi tk GrftmiiJVffflfiftirfj of Tu|nva. 

There is i processional image of wood representing 
Piiradurama irt the village called Cikkanay alt nsnflhalli,. ' 
Pa|\s, n email village twelve miles west of 3 1 assail 
the Hassan- Rakalcspirr road, fk reckoned to have been 
".he he rmitage of Jamadagni 1 

Tu]uva too IsiS places which are- atsuLiuied w-vcFi 
:hc memories and doings of E'arasnrSmu.. Three miles 

1. .lfrr .IrrA- 1 Hrpr , fur if’; .V:< Gitz„1. p-2th. (kv. Dd r j 
Ut_ Giu.. IWd. t. }fy. JtM. ftopt., TeT I'M*. i». H. 

-T. ftrJfnr ««6. PP. 1-2- 


unfth «f U i.Jl p> lies- I he Village <0 Putt Hr whieli contains 
j jeinpJt of Durga FJIn^avati said to have been e stahl i^- 
& hed by Parasurima. AlthoupEi il 11 : csri^m <if cEii* tompik- 
is according to us cf hj i 1c- JifliTcnt, aa vk shall punt out 
in a later content , vet popular cunccpticrq cornice t - 
it vvirlb Parasuriima It is said iliax he established [Iil- 
imafTt of !>ur^a llhagavati in that t cm pit. Reside r 
this image Pa r asurUm a is said to have erected t It ret 
Dlirga images and tour :Yli ijA/uva* around U^ipi-- The 
DorgiUtiyas were chose at K unjarij, EL ;t i u>a ra pad i ami 
End rail, flndrlsf] nr IndraJh). Hie tour Nu^otit^ai 
were lh<i$e of \ ntodu , Tl^iT^u, Maiig^lti, amt Alner;*- 
lagcitlii. .ill pf them being in the t : lipi taluk a- I djj'i 

or RajalhapTthd test it. on* of the seven holy places in 
'Fuluva , is said tu owe its cvktrntr to Parasurami's 
piety. J li i- nt her i-i\ ren t tl's lu'tt ICutllJrlidri (inodun 

Sii!:.rjlbrr.:ui vjl, k u mbhakSi L trtirjd u t n K^ti'i I . J hivajesora 

(modern KotcsvaruJi K rOda (mod cm ^iihharansr^ya't'iiE. 
Mfikiiriihii (modurn>, and Gokurnu [elcit\- Li, 
North k ana rah 

The temple nl RSnufca ai Kunjarapin , a village 
atv.jici eight miles t f > the snuth-ea^t nl l dip!., La cun^-i- 
dered very holy because of I lie image nl Hc-nitliii whitfi* 
ae ti i rd i nj!| 10 the Sti\ii\t\-ttt4h$iinya nf the locality, Fursaci- 
r a Ki,i installed in memory of his mother ,* I lie Sihn'~<j- 

|. “I'timSr tour I^w)iji\inyiis wikit (lie Cijnr nfrf^rjf+iy^ ftirrn (h^ 

-j3J.n J.'.. Ifj.l’XliJl B' Mill, I ll*j±aiu E niliR. LI A_ tS ■ 

2. We may vlnerv? lwrr that in holy pLice ui kmaj.inipiri. 
thuFv -bre Eiiut T'l'rnliirc cnSkJ huajuii pin* < !hi ISri rihp , DfuinutEl rlK i r in J 
^lEiiiirilu. l/tgLjul u ier j Ise s Ihvcn ni (hi of riafsiuTwii 1 , 1c 



[ Ch. 

ol Kudif Lbu npitEts thflt Ptirasuramn. made j 

r aerifieiu] Lite iii-hit h the K SnapSthi Jogifl of the north 

turned into aA altiir 1:1 I it e r h.| j y h . 

The region immediately to the »ou(h »f TuJuva,. 
hL«: c*4i hi iv ed its H-ri^iii tu Paras arama- least 

so it is related in the i radicional ji ctoum ts ot tlmt 
province called KirfuieAputfi . Thflsst legendary account?, 
nl K era lit which will presently be cited, arc, however, 
more confu&Ltiji than thnisc of Tulutra . 1 

We may brie Ely note here how Parjyurarna has 
figured m the annals of other provinces as ivoll. Thu*, 
fur instance, it is related in the tradition* of the 
Khatrih how, when he was exterminating the K^atriyni, 
a pregnant J^irl escaped and took ^Iwliet with a Sarsur 
(Harisvatal Hrflhn'iiin. When questioned hy the pur- 
suer*- the Brabitiah s-aid (hsit she n'ss his coofc(khaif uc?), 
qhJ i i) prove it etc bread of her hands.' Paiasursm^ i? 
also mentioned in ihe traditions of the Mi run and ISra.!> 
mans- of the Sutlej and ■ >1 Pilias of Bihar , 1 It i? 
maintained by some that a few sculptures in the 
Kr>narah temple in Oriasa represent the shooting of 
arrows hv Parasurama.* Commenting' on one of the fc>u?:- 

ih irtLcftLCiiiiJ: CO HjZiCl; UmC rhu Tulu IbHRU-JJ! IIHk Ivl-i.I1 UkiI ID DOUiiQr:^ 
liotl with I ' I r .■■■■'. I 7 ■ I" I . i in d i nlr iCLk iluChi-jL- L'lllih ±. Eli Lli 1 ' Oi ilatilrnn^ 
■L: >e_ . rt is- a iriace e.illrd ParHuT ■ i;m i 11 J r :l • sort's- midcriptiftno of which 
in portly in Tu|ju, ftkn b On?., 1- J0A (lit «d.) 

1. ' Lay Ear, f.'iitii'.rujyiK- JtoiiOiuu <1 On>ifirJ .Wjjp h III. pp. ftfcf-h. 
W i„iir, OiirV. I .'fliL, [. j*. I. 

!'. fiJiiiB f. pp 2¥/-2 ,, i; rti'dp I E- p- Zt. 

.1. Etnst, Carla oiJ 7>t&cr cjf ill.: I ■ P- 3+|i: C A. I. p. 331.. 

4. T. A., XLV1I, p. 215 

ri *t.M!GXD I.TltflriO^S OF FMA&mlMA 23 

reliefs ai lluiljmi, ]>r ■ Charperukr remarked iKai the 
j J liirjha -or win jj(vw in); ha&kct found therein may pnmibly 
be referred |n ] h jrn»>iramri 



I Ire deT ailed references; to charaeicr 

and valour given above , while thev prove the ox creme 
popularity of die btl-ji personage undo! the veneratkm 
in which he v as held, t'ftpc-r rally in the Karnataka and 
Tamil rfRWt, do not rtwtiln nuticn of hi-s- ere at ions 
which deiiL'Txe cuhv to he examined also with the aid Ol 
I icer Bry and epigraphical tvidoite, I'hiit FaraJurSlua 
cleared the carc^ trl the Ksatriyas twenty-one timer t 
tradition, liieriuy works, and inscriptions unanimously 
rtftree. 3 n rhe version rd h is story as given in iEic 
IWah/ilthii nil^i ;|T. H repeated in ifie E^r fan Ptifa nu , as- asivli- 
tioned aha vi;, ^ e satJ 1 Li : l : ] 1 .1 c a:--'. i r ;i 1 1 1 ;i gave the earth 
to cite tiiioistcrinn pricBta vho, v-hhi the permission oJ 
Kaftyayra, divided it amongst themselves. It was alsu 
further observed that Jiiio;ida^iiva retired to the sea 
ihrrre of the moulIi, phi Ireinj: told Ivy KaSyapi diat he 
had no place any tv I-l- re t<« re&ide. 

'J'hese [wo tletails seem to liavu I umished later 
tuiters with matter for ilLe construction of ait ingenious 
story which is best described in the ji*^dW-,A£i>iJii oi 
the Sbaittiti-Pvr3j)ri. Narrated in the briefest words, it 
is cSsl- following !— T'hal Parasurfima stood on a part i - 

i of ikr kvwu) . Ji.-jnv .s-v^ri ji .T I'^a. p. m., 

24 .V'KJliKIT K AFtN * "| AbiA [ C l " 

cutai spot, threw hi* battle axe i n t-n (nr, an pinf say, 
*h<>t htaarrowe atl the Ocean, and with the lntuJ thus- 
ri;]j:i(|uKitcd TO Itirn by SjjjarHf formed *cvcfl divisions 
known as tlte H®pta Ku^kiuni^. Ol’ I IilSc stvin di v Lticna , 
Tujluc-a ii' as riTif , v \ mimuler di-visitiM iv*s made of du 
land into iff-fiTi ikj or vi I ln^es which ¥tre dhurihuMd 
amongst the Brahmans 1 After a sene* of events wind; 
injed not be described here, he retired in flit Mubendra 
mountain . 

' | ' h e SqhynJri-liBjTild asserts that lit sttmd Cni tlic lop 
til the Hahy-n-iSfjfljfJccfJifaayfl .t'ikharr. rif^lleiijj- 1 ["his. spot may 
he identified with Tlrthabalh mentioned both in the 
st)fa\ti-Tnahaimj£is ul ilii Kurniitaka a* well a* tlmMs ed 
Talma, and nut with .Mount DiLIy, an remarked hy 
Wilv mi Icmsjj ;l^u. Ar Ln the pinto wlieie 3 ? arasuranfi|j 
final! v retired h tic are i old. that it tvat the Maheudrii 
m o u nt ai n on t he SOU t he rn ae ashc re . T It i :■ w as in i Ot he j 
llun the muRt southerly apiars of the Tru vane ore hills. 

! SitIi jit Jr i JhT h (to I 1 1 j c .u iSI u , Ch- VI. % . 35, p. 3£J 

2, WLlatn,, |"^jru t ^ur. ,*rv,i jp_ I'M, J>j j! 1 1 [\ j ,i»i mietiooHl 

.n>j'viliun.-, ui Wihon i-uem i in thank , tfiul tlitrt hi.L smra:- 

■m'tr (St «ie in’ modern K.em|a., Wflum nrifei ItlTthn' ifl- the uiul 
ixiameCiun ■■— " It m^uii likely chpc wt huve jinraf 'hi the loc>l h-gtin! 
heins it Ir4kt ** uld l- Che liypinfii-nji ol cl-., Ch.ri>tiin erg. Hstlw Muni* 

t'yrrl-.ui ii-r ['inlL-niv il ppnhlhly the Ifl of [tirihj nrl^mkt: 

Rrfrn*-'” Jfcd- .-We elm Wilwft, M.tiife. Celt.. I, p *cie Ki« 
Tert'hW tb.ii.-in he* .Vj 1 . £»r»;, P I, ■pr'S'fr p. L Jli I it ed.f iltltot ]h*ra*ii 
isiinCi'inc J hx Wrixna ciiuun Ln- cmce-J nnyerbere in Ihv wpojtraplnfcil 
ileci fuiwn In hiioury. On Mount lOLCtj- *t iJo L t p . resd J H 
niiJ, p. th&, -kvc ; iAnf. tor 192 J. pp S 3"-4 ; iAiJ for 1914 ,, pp. iS'-tf 
L'coltmy- moutiofie ['urrhu-i nr tho Kud H>IU. J^ure*;?, p r-J- (Itlt-, 
Clfifidle. Cibutti. 



still caltsil hy that lums Lrflm win.' re IE ■i i i Mil's iii l if. said 
[ i.. 5 > 5 i'i‘ leaped Eli) |n l.niik:i 1 

Nifw ^e come tu the main purl vd the storv uf 
Psrjsiifam;i with which we -ire concerned, ofs-. the- 
acquisition of h large: stretch of count ty I'rcjui the ■>cciii': 
by him, his alleged division ol tk land into seven 
district*. ciite nf which w,ts called Tu|uvi, and the dis- 
tribution nf thete *e ven pr uvi rates am c*ng the Hruhimin?,- 
as given in the ^ah^ltiri-kaada and in the traditional 
.iccOimts cd Tujuu called the ftrflmiptufrfhfii i . Thus is - , 
the SflAjWn'-fcflftiJa . 

B eflU^hjir^TflJjTi faini^ firUrtf iijfntim daUifil • vufhii-'i 1 U/£iih I 

.V ti n i ' rrii' i ■ -'TV i-i.Tfl I'h'n.i i- in'p^Trtrtcflt a Tirfl i r n i ; ■ >■-■? n 

I diUnymyt rjVi Inure Jij ^le^r'ie/ir^irin ^■«i. i i-dr. , y/uT-iufJ'r^r e 1 
Srj^ HI ( -nrjjf :.T.r -prr.Vir J|i- UJr S‘ UJ'JtSAflrd 'rr-CjW I’ll Sf .hiJcim l! 

I his- would j i'i iik i the country reclaiinnd liruii lhr 
tea one hundred kin^AiM in length ami three .vcywiti.T l; 
hrtiSdti: I : :>in the '.'jitArayi I near N&sik.) in I hi north i ■ 
SuhfAhirta Oya in the sciutli The faEthiulncss of slur 
author^ of Skandn Putiisa to one detail given in the 
.WirWhA-ifufrj ii apparent when wv road in the above 

1‘ ^fbllTrajTrTnVTj k r k iii-ilbi:'i-'i. > i; if) , ki fy» 'll, i'i I t . |^f. 1 . 

A Oiatii -effect iHLKftt I'll A Q1 VtakiLn.lru |& y i l ni ift. eIii: t-liiIi/ I'Pli' whl-W r 
i :■ - £ p r |J L > ! V iLilivl in In: jn itlG MOflfhr ^IHC*. t L . ri . hi 2 1 ! p-. 3 • H ■ ' 

t^E'ip|lnr]kjr, H-spiIkIv |YJ5}. AlulietKlriL'iri lh> » fi« mile* tranL 
Niprrmil It u.ti* h*T«-ein lii* Mpkt-ra'tragiri tKit nr, Ji.icw- J, 1*1] 5, 

'rf llie ttirET cj’hiIi .' j wk» kiJ Ijl'lii in- thit kill, m j.s crubhiil by a tviSil 
rk-phiru., ni, vi i yi % ■ ■ 1 1 L- ■ I m ik. 7 i'wi U i wImi, Rnintuv, ilaud June 

ti. 1«J, 

1 . JVnfr.i lirfjf 4,1 nil 1 .. L. Hir L h . VI . ri I 3 -I 5 . 

WClENT K.CRh’A'! .-t K * 

r ct,. 


extract. fkiit this e xct I ] en t jitid newly created place u;is 
christened frtrrparaka district, This was. the name, i*r 
wt h;i v t noted iIiqvu. JC; ■ \ t:ia In Lhc Jtew provitLCE in ih* 
l> ii ml i FnrL?u. 

\V"e may obaeive hero 111 at the CiiUmupaJrffistf 
Tu[uva , based to aoim extent as it w an on the SciJijff^i* 
kilnJa, also caaifirma the detail concerning the tenpth 
and breadth of the new province hut adds a lew more 
detail* which were obviously lhc outcome oF tndipt- 
nous intellect- Thus one Version of the CrriTmapiM/imafi 
depict?, P-aniSufStna a* having taken h is stand on the 
5tifjfiff-wrFttcn in Rome versions Sarnya - mountain which 
in evidently an error For Salty a mrmntain ; and of having 
secured a, stretch -.■! tcrrilory three in eKl^nt 

fr-unt the Siiiilia nnMiiit ;i in add thirty $<yjQiia9 l rum 
li. jnynLmiiSrT tu Trly drnbal-a, A m-CMC accurate veriton 
rtf the same work ascribed to rate FShattSclryj, gstes 
i he length nt the province as nrie hundred jwJsmb Irom 
hiaail in the north to KHTiyiktiniiri in the south and 
three yvfcma in breadth front the S*hya muunt in r, 10 
the western sea.' 

The SflApOeft'i-iSfli/a US jbo that JaTTliidepnya 

created the Sapta fitfimit with which we arc 

not concerned here. £ In j later pasPiilZe u'c hstfO the 

]. In. the ■, irr>rtin j4jnuriniiiiMl by Wjlieti, we are informed thal 
Virnreiunm tlifLV hi:- ay-i: frrrcn C-uka,rn« 1“ Kurnlfr, u^i-il die rctinni: 
ikkuh yiehlkd turn ttst eiKikt nf MalnSmt ftckiw |ltc l*rltuJt gJ 15 
,1 lymi. tVUum, Mild. CaN.) [. InrtT pp- Will an ■t»pi- 

Irjurtd* htfe Tn|u»H pn>|ipf w P th MiUbar El, A - S, 

J, SitftjriiilrF'AJ^stp t.'inii'. I. yv, Sl-53 . p. JOE. 


A[.LF«;j?ih qRTTATKars or 


stun? m cnt l'c gave L^'clve jj r*w.a t^ Hyn;hinstn^ : 

^frflSiT/Vi.VJJfJ^/i-rtJii^Lfn(im-ifja.-?iini HTjJarwn! lar/iT > 

GrSMtS/f3ni Ji:ii if nA iTqvTnr (w pitl'irnrirjrnu JQ Arl-i^e VijJi H 1 
And then we have the names ol the f umovs seven 
dirisiUis of the new Hand fjii e: il rlnas.: — Kerala, FufuiLga 
E-f.d . h ‘L'utuva evidently!, Halva, ftau rostra, Kurifcai.tu, 
Karnhiia, iiptd Karnataka. ‘t Jiese were the well known 
Ss pt a K cnik au aa n t wes tei n 1 ndi a. 

While the fact of his having reclaimed the &tir|*iL- 
rnka province from (hfc oMiin ami of his having eals- 
blished the fiapta Kuti&varaa di vitbinlC certain I tacts mt(> 
iTflve $frm<rr amongst Bra h mans i* thus nnttaicd in 
t Si £■■ epics arid the PjrrJ^u , it ii nnt told anywhere that 
he formed the seven lUtmructs mtn t mne d alw»ve. I’he 
epics and the Pariixaii excluding the 
du (nit M]ic;ak c. k t th L " E^apti ]\ Oftk a II Me Hf having bn ml 
treated by him To ihe absence ol thin import am 
detail in the ftinffijua , we may add two considerations 
10 prot e iliai iht Evapta Kortkanas cannot he ascribed 
in Faraiurama at ail. Sn (he elaborate description ut 
the activities o| Knnavlrya 3nd ol his sons,, and of the 
diatom ft t ut l w Inch Fu f aau r Hiii a sii f| l- e v l! a t tin- Ii ands 
nl I>af,ar;itls.a"A snn Kama, as give n Iw K^lid-isi, whose 
acquaintance wtili (lit traditional oriRiri of u par! n>f the 
western coast we have already nnm, no mention ss 
made til the Hapla Kunkinas at all. On cli e other hand, 
Katid Hsi merely informs Li* Pa rasEu rOm ? had yivt-m 
(he whole ear'll bumi Jl lI by the ocefm tn the dcaer ving 

1 A 2. fbiJ, CK VI- Vr 42. p.336. v, +fi 1, pi. 32B. 

tltrahmanah TFms dous Paras ijr3isi:i him sell tdlRama; — 
Even tli c opposite of victory (r.-c,., defeat! inflicted by 
thee — dit Prime vat He Lug— i» certainly agree a h[e to 
me who have Ted Lived Lu iisFics the Ltiomiei of my father 
jn-d who have made nver she whole earth hound u d by 
else oceans to the- desers inji . 

pilr-Jmsaff pMra*Vi-<'a posm/M^r 

.-i hitah Jl'J pT ■ d rpurr yo J 1 i? (TK nrc v'ltitfhfii ri?n (M.fiiim’fthini, 
jL’liVlJ IF 1 

The absence fif any reference to the cj cation of the 
fiapti by Parasiurarna in the wrjik of Evdlidasii 
proves that the legend of fiuptn kortkiiftas rimst have 
originated after the poet 'e time. i ■■., jIu i i tie. filth sir 
the sixth Cun t Ur t vp-. 

Another consideration wjiicFi ite-es to confirm the 
,i in i ic assertion is the diversity Of opinion ameFg fhe 
writers nl the story as re Fanis tE>e names of the 
districts thai ctmaprr&cd the Sap til K rink anas. 'I lie 
Sir^y^cfn-tniwhi includes among lhe honkiinas the name 
Tolling*, SocEi a variant uf tEiy name I'uEiiv-a is eiot 
met with in iinv nl' the hitherto discovered historical 
rcmtdsor traditional nttounh of tEiat district. Instead 
of JIavve mentioned in tli t Sd hpfltfn -kUnttn, we haw 
flovarastra Ln other nCCtaunts. SaurBjfra ofiltcsaiiiL- 
PtrfjKj er called Vara fitti in Qtlicr vcTFioni." And in- 
stead o| Karnlta. other ac court [ h =idd Barbara . * L-'ur- 

l. KfuHnrwui, X [. Jf'i- Vt alto ifcit, vi‘, fnM? fm iht itory 
h?I S-Liirtivlry.*. 

2il. LVIlien .^Kahr KIT. p. 47. fti). for “«■* 

jT+Lwitih- Gnatttirt, f. F. IS. p. 2& 5, n- f5).